Conditions and Trends of the Jakarta Bay and Bunaken National Park Ecosystems

Indonesia (Jakarta Bay and Bunaken)

Geographical coverage

Geographical scale of the assessment Sub-national
Country or countries covered Indonesia
Any other necessary information or explanation for identifying the location of the assessment, including site or region name

South East Asia

Conceptual framework, methodology and scope

Assessment objectives

•To assess the condition and trend of the Jakarta Bay and Bunaken Ecosystem; •To document the existing of ecosystem services that give benefit to human life; •To assess the drivers of ecosystem change; •To understand the impact of development activities on ecosystem services.

Mandate for the assessment

The mandate of assessment was to assist decision maker in managing the Jakarta Bay and Bunaken Ecosystem by providing information on the status of the Jakarta Bay and Bunaken Ecosystem.

Conceptual framework and/or methodology used for the assessment

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)

URL or copy of conceptual framework developed or adapted

System(s) assessed

  • Marine
  • Coastal

Species groups assessed

Ecosystem services/functions assessed


  • Food
  • Water
  • Ecotourism


  • Regulation of water flows
  • Waste treatment
  • Erosion prevention

Supporting Services/Functions

  • Nutrient cycling
  • Life cycle maintenance

Cultural Services

  • Recreation and tourism

Scope of assessment includes

Drivers of change in systems and services


Impacts of change in services on human well-being


Options for responding/interventions to the trends observed


Explicit consideration of the role of biodiversity in the systems and services covered by the assessment


Timing of the assessment

Year assessment started

Pre 2000

Year assessment finished


If ongoing, year assessment is anticipated to finish

Periodicity of assessment


Assessment outputs



Arifin, Z. (2004). Local Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Condition And Trend Of The Greater Jakarta Bay Ecosystem.

Communication materials (e.g. brochure, presentations, posters, audio-visual media)

Journal publications

Training materials

Other documents/outputs

Tools and processes

Tools and approaches used in the assessment

  • Indicators

Process used for stakeholder engagement in the assessment process and which component

Key stakeholder groups engaged

The number of people directly involved in the assessment process

Less than 10

Incorporation of scientific and other types of knowledge

  • Scientific information only
  • Resource experts (e.g. foresters etc)

Supporting documentation for specific approaches, methodology or criteria developed and/or used to integrate knowledge systems into the assessment

Assessment reports peer reviewed



Accessibility of data used in assessment

Data used in the assessment were partial and fragmentary in some stakeholders with various objective.

Policy impact

Impacts the assessment has had on policy and/or decision making, as evidenced through policy references and actions

Independent or other review on policy impact of the assessment


Lessons learnt for future assessments from these reviews

A comprehensive study over other ecosystems surrounding Bunaken National Park is needed since Bunake National Park is not only highly correlated with human activities.

Capacity building

Capacity building needs identified during the assessment

Actions taken by the assessment to build capacity

How have gaps in capacity been communicated to the different stakeholders

Knowledge generation

Gaps in knowledge identified from the assessment

How gaps in knowledge have been communicated to the different stakeholders

Additional relevant information