Conserving Biodiversity and Delivering Ecosystem Services at Important Bird Areas in Nepal

Ecosystem services at IBAs in Nepal

Geographical coverage

Geographical scale of the assessment National
Country or countries covered Nepal
Any other necessary information or explanation for identifying the location of the assessment, including site or region name

Conceptual framework, methodology and scope

Assessment objectives

This study was designed to help decision-makers recognise the value of ecosystem services more fully, leading to a more sustainable future, in which the benefits from ecosystem services are better realised and more equitably distributed. Bird Conservation Nepal led the study and intend to build on the work it is presenting here, specifically by advocating for the inclusion of ecosystem values in land use policy, planning and management in Nepal, and undertaking actions that more effectively conserve biodiversity and reduce poverty at Important Bird Areas.

Mandate for the assessment

This study has helped to test a new practical ‘toolkit’ for assessing ecosystem services at the site-scale. The methods used are accessible to non-experts and deliver scientifically robust results. It is the first example of applying this approach to a network of sites important for biodiversity conservation in one country—Nepal—and analysing the results in relation to decision-making at both the local and national scales.

Conceptual framework and/or methodology used for the assessment

Other (please specify)

Toolkit for Ecosystem Services Site-based Assessments

URL or copy of conceptual framework developed or adapted

not yet available

System(s) assessed

  • Inland water
  • Forest and woodland
  • Cultivated/Agricultural land
  • Grassland
  • Mountain

Species groups assessed


Ecosystem services/functions assessed


  • Food
  • Water
  • Timber/fibres
  • Medicinal resources
  • Energy/fuel


  • Air quality
  • Climate regulation
  • Moderation of extreme events
  • Regulation of water flows
  • Regulation of water quality
  • Waste treatment
  • Erosion prevention
  • Pest and disease control

Supporting Services/Functions

  • maintenance of genetic diversity

Cultural Services

  • Recreation and tourism

Scope of assessment includes

Drivers of change in systems and services


Impacts of change in services on human well-being


Options for responding/interventions to the trends observed


Explicit consideration of the role of biodiversity in the systems and services covered by the assessment


Timing of the assessment

Year assessment started


Year assessment finished


If ongoing, year assessment is anticipated to finish

Periodicity of assessment


Assessment outputs


Communication materials (e.g. brochure, presentations, posters, audio-visual media)


Journal publications

Training materials

Other documents/outputs

Tools and processes

Tools and approaches used in the assessment

  • Trade-off analysis
  • Scenarios
  • Social (non-monetary) valuation

Process used for stakeholder engagement in the assessment process and which component

Expert consultation workshop

Key stakeholder groups engaged

Local Conservation Groups, National park managers, FECOFUN, CFUGs

The number of people directly involved in the assessment process


Incorporation of scientific and other types of knowledge

  • Scientific information only
  • Resource experts (e.g. foresters etc)
  • Traditional/local knowledge

Supporting documentation for specific approaches, methodology or criteria developed and/or used to integrate knowledge systems into the assessment

Assessment reports peer reviewed



Accessibility of data used in assessment

Available in Report

Policy impact

Impacts the assessment has had on policy and/or decision making, as evidenced through policy references and actions

Launched by the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation at the CBD COP11 in Hyderabad. Jointly published by the Dept. of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation. Has been discussed at meetings in relation to the revision of Nepal's NBSAP.

Independent or other review on policy impact of the assessment


Lessons learnt for future assessments from these reviews

Capacity building

Capacity building needs identified during the assessment

Actions taken by the assessment to build capacity

Network and sharing experiences, Workshops, Developing/promoting and providing access to support tools, Communication and awareness raising

How have gaps in capacity been communicated to the different stakeholders

Knowledge generation

Gaps in knowledge identified from the assessment

How gaps in knowledge have been communicated to the different stakeholders

Additional relevant information