Integrated approaches for adaptive resilience-based management of forests for supporting agro-systems in the Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas

Resilience-based management in Eastern Himalayas

Geographical coverage

Geographical scale of the assessment Sub-national
Country or countries covered India
Any other necessary information or explanation for identifying the location of the assessment, including site or region name

The research sites include the Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas in Northeast India. Both these sites are part of the global biodiversity hotspot Eastern Himalayas.

Conceptual framework, methodology and scope

Assessment objectives

The overall objective of this research/assessment is develop management and governance systems that would generate a sustained supply of ecosystem services and support associated livelihoods without impairing key ecosystem properties and functions (e.g. biodiversity, recharge to ground-water, soil fertility) that are necessary for maintaining resilience in the face of climate variability and change.

Specifically: * Determine the supply-demand linkages between the forest and dependent communities. * Determine the key drivers of change in these systems (e.g., climate, markets, fire, invasive species) * Determine the appropriate scale of intervention for each of the ecosystem goods and services individually. * Determine the drivers of disservices from wildlife, which includes conflicts and crop raids (e.g, cropping pattern, characteristic of the agriculture matrix ) *Determine the economic value of key ecosystem products, functions, and services. *Suggest monitoring protocols so that local communities can manage resource (biomass, NTFPs, water and biodiversity) conditions and yields. *Determine if there is higher production/provisioning of ecosystem services in areas with long term security of tenure, and that could thereby influence policy. *Determine the influence of traditional knowledge on resource-use (agriculture/ biomass/ NTFPs/Water) patterns and augment traditional knowledge with knowledge emerging from the study and ultimately to be documented in a village register.

Mandate for the assessment

Conceptual framework and/or methodology used for the assessment


URL or copy of conceptual framework developed or adapted


System(s) assessed

  • Forest and woodland
  • Cultivated/Agricultural land
  • Mountain

Species groups assessed

Ungulates, primates and avian species that cause crop damage. Carnivores that lift livestock and act as disservices and cause conflict.

Ecosystem services/functions assessed


  • Food
  • Water
  • Timber/fibres
  • Medicinal resources
  • Energy/fuel


  • Pollination

Supporting Services/Functions

Cultural Services

Scope of assessment includes

Drivers of change in systems and services


Impacts of change in services on human well-being


Options for responding/interventions to the trends observed


Explicit consideration of the role of biodiversity in the systems and services covered by the assessment


Timing of the assessment

Year assessment started


Year assessment finished

If ongoing, year assessment is anticipated to finish


Periodicity of assessment

One off

Assessment outputs


Aspects of the work will be uploaded in the ATREE


Communication materials (e.g. brochure, presentations, posters, audio-visual media)

Journal publications

Training materials

Other documents/outputs

Tools and processes

Tools and approaches used in the assessment

  • Indicators
  • Social (non-monetary) valuation

Process used for stakeholder engagement in the assessment process and which component

To be designed

Key stakeholder groups engaged

To be identified

The number of people directly involved in the assessment process

Incorporation of scientific and other types of knowledge

  • Scientific information only
  • Resource experts (e.g. foresters etc)
  • Traditional/local knowledge
  • Citizen science

Supporting documentation for specific approaches, methodology or criteria developed and/or used to integrate knowledge systems into the assessment


Assessment reports peer reviewed



Accessibility of data used in assessment


Policy impact

Impacts the assessment has had on policy and/or decision making, as evidenced through policy references and actions

Not available now

Independent or other review on policy impact of the assessment


Lessons learnt for future assessments from these reviews

Not known yet

Capacity building

Capacity building needs identified during the assessment

Not known yet

Actions taken by the assessment to build capacity

Network and sharing experiences, Sharing of data/repatriation of data, Workshops, Communication and awareness raising

How have gaps in capacity been communicated to the different stakeholders

Not done yet

Knowledge generation

Gaps in knowledge identified from the assessment

Not done yet

How gaps in knowledge have been communicated to the different stakeholders

Not done yet

Additional relevant information