Wildlife Picture Index


Geographical coverage

Geographical scale of the assessment Global,Regional,National
Country or countries covered Brazil, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Laos, Madagascar, Peru, Tanzania, Uganda, Indonesia, Malaysia, Suriname, Panama, Congo - Brazzaville
Any other necessary information or explanation for identifying the location of the assessment, including site or region name


Cocha Cashu, Manu, Peru Manaus, Brazil Caxiuana, Brazil Udzungwa, Tanzania Volcan Barva, Costa Rica Ranomafana, Madagascar CSNR, Suriname Yanachaga- Chemillén, Peru BCI, Panama Korup, Cameroon Mudumalai, India Pasoh, Malaysia Yasuni, Ecuador Bukit Barasan, Indonesia Bwindi, Uganda Nam Kading, Laos Nouabale Ndoki, Congo Brazzaville

Conceptual framework, methodology and scope

Assessment objectives

To detect annual changes in community structure and diversity of large terrestrial mammals and birds in the tropics.

Mandate for the assessment

Delivering data and indicators for national, regional and global assessments of progress toward the Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi Target # 12.

Conceptual framework and/or methodology used for the assessment

Global Environment Outlook (GEO)

URL or copy of conceptual framework developed or adapted


O’Brien TG, Baillie JEM, Krueger L, Cuke M (2010) The Wildlife Picture Index: monitoring top trophic levels. Anim Conserv 13: 335-343.

System(s) assessed

  • Forest and woodland

Species groups assessed

ground-dwelling terrestrial mammals and birds

Ecosystem services/functions assessed


  • Food


Supporting Services/Functions

Cultural Services

Scope of assessment includes

Drivers of change in systems and services


Impacts of change in services on human well-being


Options for responding/interventions to the trends observed


Explicit consideration of the role of biodiversity in the systems and services covered by the assessment


Timing of the assessment

Year assessment started


Year assessment finished


If ongoing, year assessment is anticipated to finish


Periodicity of assessment


If repeated, how frequently


Assessment outputs


Communication materials (e.g. brochure, presentations, posters, audio-visual media)

Journal publications

Ahumada JA, Silva CEF, Gajapersad K, Hallam C, Hurtado J et al. (2011) Community structure and diversity of tropical forest mammals: data from a global camera trap network. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366: 2703-2711.

O’Brien TG, Baillie JEM, Krueger L, Cuke M (2010) The Wildlife Picture Index: monitoring top trophic levels. Anim Conserv 13: 335-343.

Training materials

Camera Trap Protocol

WPI Manual

Other documents/outputs

Tools and processes

Tools and approaches used in the assessment

  • Modelling
  • Indicators

Process used for stakeholder engagement in the assessment process and which component

Training of local partners to implement protocols. Analytical workshops on camera trap data analyses

Key stakeholder groups engaged

Local scientists and site managers Park staff University students

The number of people directly involved in the assessment process


Incorporation of scientific and other types of knowledge

  • Scientific information only
  • Resource experts (e.g. foresters etc)
  • Citizen science

Supporting documentation for specific approaches, methodology or criteria developed and/or used to integrate knowledge systems into the assessment

Crowd sourcing of species identification with scientific quality control

Assessment reports peer reviewed



Accessibility of data used in assessment


Policy impact

Impacts the assessment has had on policy and/or decision making, as evidenced through policy references and actions

Current policy impact has been largely at the site-level, where real-time data showing changes in species abundance over time allows for protected area managers to focus enforcement and management more effectively. As more sites and countries adopt WPI methodology, policy maker will be able to assess impacts of policies and direct interventions on species trends using WPI.

Independent or other review on policy impact of the assessment


Lessons learnt for future assessments from these reviews

policy impact has not been reviewed.

Capacity building

Capacity building needs identified during the assessment

Training national authorities to conduct national-scale WPI evaluations to contribute to their CBD reporting requirements and assessing national biodiversity trends.

Actions taken by the assessment to build capacity

Network and sharing experiences, Access to funding, Sharing of data/repatriation of data, Workshops, Developing/promoting and providing access to support tools, Formal training

How have gaps in capacity been communicated to the different stakeholders

Plans are underway to using National Biodiversity Strategy and Implementation Plan review process to provide national-level training.

Knowledge generation

Gaps in knowledge identified from the assessment

This is a unique data set that provides annual information on trends of whole communities. These data have never been systematically collected and analyzed before.

How gaps in knowledge have been communicated to the different stakeholders

Stakeholders are aware of gaps in detailed changes in status and trends of tropical mammals and birds and are eager to use and integrate into their national assessment processes. On the global scale, IUCN has signed a Memorandum of Cooperation with TEAM to use the Wildlife Picture Index to enhance their existing assessments through the Species Survival Commission.

Additional relevant information