Biodiversity in marine environment: a review and recommendations for research in the environmental and social sciences.
|Geographical scale of the assessment||Global|
|Country or countries covered||France|
|Any other necessary information or explanation for identifying the location of the assessment, including site or region name||
includes also French overseas territories as well as the issue of deep sea ecosystems
Geographical scale of the assessment
Country or countries covered
Any other necessary information or explanation for identifying the location of the assessment, including site or region name
includes also French overseas territories as well as the issue of deep sea ecosystems
Conceptual framework, methodology and scope
Context and scope of the collective expertise: This multidisciplinary scientific assessment, ‘Biodiversity in marine environment : a review and recommendations for research in the environmental and social sciences’ both in French and English, was carried out in response to a need to update research strategies to address the issue of marine biodiversity considering both environmental and social issues. This takes place in a context of strong interest in marine biodiversity, increasing anthropogenic pressures on this biodiversity and emergence of new concepts to prompt for new management options.
Moreover, this collective expertise has taken into account the scientific national prospective on biodiversity research carried out by the “Fondation pour la Recherche en Biodiversité” (FRB), and elaborated under the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research (MESR) supervision as a key component of the French National Research and Innovation Strategy (SNRI) (FRB, 2010).
Concomitantly, numerous additional initiatives were underway at the national level, including the ‘Grenelle de la Mer’, a stakeholders’ summit under the French Ministry of Environment supervision to develop a comprehensive marine strategy, as well as the European Union directive implementation on ‘Marine Strategy’ (MFSD) which includes a large stake on biodiversity issues.
This assessment was carried out in 2010 during the international year of the Biodiversity (CBD, 2010), which highlighted the worldwide context of rapid biodiversity erosion, at both terrestrial and marine levels. With regard to oceans, the French EEZ represents the second area at the worldwide level with 11M km², from North Sea to western Mediterranean Sea, from St Pierre et Miquelon islands to Crozet Islands, French Guyana and Antilla, from New Caledonia and French Polynesia to La Reunion Island, therefore bearing large responsabilities for the marine biodiversity future. This collective expertise was supported by the French Ministry of Environment and the French research institute Ifremer.
This multidisciplinary scientific assessment is a support mechanism to establish further research priorities on marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. The assessment was carried out by a group of scientists, with specialists from various disciplines and working for different research organizations. It included specialists in marine ecology, physiology, anthropology, genetics and systematics, paleo-evolution, mathematics, economy and specialists in fishery and aquaculture management and specialists of the deepsea realm. The assessment output resulted in the production of a report summarizing the expert contributions and a synthesis providing recommendations for further five research priorities. The report was also printed as a book format (Fr / En).
The assessment is organized around 9 chapters : (1) Marine biodiversity importance, (2) Anthropogenic impacts, (3) status and trends), (4) conceptualizing biodiversity, (5) measuring biodiversity, (6) drivers of biodiversity, (7) integrated scenarios and policies, (8) research needs, and (9) references. A glossary of terms and web sites is also provided.
Mandate for the assessment
As a public research institute, Ifremer interacts with the French Ministries of Environment, Research and Agriculture to develop its research strategy. This collective expertise was mandated by the Ifremer' CeO to upgrade the research strategy on marine biodiversity and the strategic plan reviewed by the French Ministries. The French Minstry of Environmeent supported financially the expertise costs. The final report of this multidisciplinary assessment was written by a group of scientific experts from France, Australia, UK, USA and Malaysia independently of their employers. Therefore responsability for the contents' report remains solely at the author's level.
Conceptual framework and/or methodology used for the assessment
Other (please specify)
The methodolgy used is a collective expertise based upon a multidisciplinary scientific assessment. It consists of responding to a complex question by establishing the current state of knowledge surrounding the question using an extensive worldwide literature review. This should include the know facts, uncertainties, gaps in knowledge and controveries. No additional research work is carried out. The collective expertise was carried out by a multidisciplinary expert group of 15 scientists. More than a thousand publications, reports, technical documents were extracted, analysed and summarised to provide elements for the final report. This includes the review of conceptual frameworks already available.
URL or copy of conceptual framework developed or adapted
No information added
Species groups assessed
Ecosystem services/functions assessed
- Genetic resources
- Climate regulation
- Pest and disease control
- Habitat maintenance
- Nutrient cycling
- Primary production
- Recreation and tourism
Scope of assessment includes
Drivers of change in systems and services
Impacts of change in services on human well-being
Options for responding/interventions to the trends observed
Explicit consideration of the role of biodiversity in the systems and services covered by the assessment
Timing of the assessment
Year assessment started
Year assessment finished
If ongoing, year assessment is anticipated to finish
Periodicity of assessment
P. Goulletquer, P. Gros, G. Boeuf, J. Weber, C. Béné, G. Carvalho, P. Cury, B. David, D. Desbruyères, S. Hanna, L. Doyen, S. Jennings, O. Thébaud, H. Levrel, Biodiversity in marine environment: a review and recommendations for research in the environmental and social sciences.
Communication materials (e.g. brochure, presentations, posters, audio-visual media)
Tools and processes
Tools and approaches used in the assessment
- Trade-off analysis
- Geospatial analysis
- Economic valuation
- Social (non-monetary) valuation
Process used for stakeholder engagement in the assessment process and which component
- initial request
- building ad-hoc expert group
- several meetings and in-between desktop work by experts
- presentation of the final outputs to an independant scientific committee and ifremer's governing body
- presentation of the results to the French Minstry of Environment -book publication in French and English
Key stakeholder groups engaged
information provided towards - the French Ministries of Research, Environment...French Agency such as the agency in charge of marine protected areas, - the scientific community through the report indexation and mailing
The number of people directly involved in the assessment process
Incorporation of scientific and other types of knowledge
- Scientific information only
Supporting documentation for specific approaches, methodology or criteria developed and/or used to integrate knowledge systems into the assessment
Assessment reports peer reviewed
Accessibility of data used in assessment
Two scientific librarians were dedicated to this this assessment until its completion. They provided a large number of publications, reports, grey literature to support the expert requests. Differents sources of information were used including the web of science, and various databases commonly used by the 'La Pérouse Library Service', a service developed around universities and research institutes contributions.
Impacts the assessment has had on policy and/or decision making, as evidenced through policy references and actions
The oputputs were directly used to upgrade scientific strategies.
Moreover, recommendations were also used to provide recommendations and update the French National strategy on biodiversity with regard to marine issues.
Independent or other review on policy impact of the assessment
Lessons learnt for future assessments from these reviews
Interdisciplinary approach are very valuable to address biodiversity issues. However, crossing 'natural' and 'social' scientific approaches requires sufficient time of exchange to be fruitful
Capacity building needs identified during the assessment
Actions taken by the assessment to build capacity
Network and sharing experiences, Sharing of data/repatriation of data, Workshops, Communication and awareness raising
How have gaps in capacity been communicated to the different stakeholders
Mostly through the Ifremer Communication Direction
Gaps in knowledge identified from the assessment
see the conclusions and recommendations provided in the report and book
How gaps in knowledge have been communicated to the different stakeholders
Publications - Conferences - Round tables